Manufactured for use in vacuum piping systems, CF flanges use a mechanical seal to create a leak-tight connection between flanges. When the bolts squeeze the flanges together, the soft metal gasket melds into a thin groove cut into the flat flange surface which provides the leak-tight seal. Flanges operate in temperature from -196°C through 450°C and pressures from 760 Torr (103mbar) to less than 1 x 10-12 Torr (1 x 10-12 mbar). Available in fixed or rotatable designs. A fixed design is a one piece bolt-hole pattern. The rotatable design consists of a weld ring and bolt ring, which rotates to mate with the other flange for easier installation.